Today we will hear the story of the fourth form of matter, with which there is no limit to the suffering of scientists when it comes to building houses. This form of matter is called plasma. Physicists want to make energy by capturing him in a bottle. But he is not going to be kept in check. Because, plasma is actually fragile, fragile, but chaotic, reckless, invincible, indomitable, inaccessible.
Matter exists in five states: solid, liquid, gas, plasma and Bose-Einstein condensate. The fourth form of matter, plasma, has been studied for nearly 70 years, and it is possible to obtain infinite energy from plasma. There are innumerable atoms hidden in the outer covering of the object, these atoms are constantly swaying and running. The electric force binds the atoms, tying a kind of invisible chain around the atom’s legs. Chemists call this chain the chemical bond. The chain of a solid object is very strong, so it has a certain size and volume. In the liquid state, the binding of this chain is fragile, so it has no specific shape, in the case of gas, this chain has been torn, so it has no size, no volume. When a solid is continuously heated, the atoms start to move violently, the chain is pulled, and finally the chains break. In this way solid matter first becomes liquid, then gas. What if the temperature of this gas could be raised to one million degrees Celsius? The atoms then run around like crazy, squabbling with each other. Even the very existence of the atom is endangered. Between the atoms is the nucleus, where the protons and neutrons reside, which are surrounded by electrons. Electrical attraction traps the electrons with the nucleus. This new chain is even stronger. The closer an electron is to the nucleus, the tighter its chain. The fire that is burning at a temperature of one and a half crore degrees Celsius does not care about any chain.
It is as if the prison of the rebellious poet Kazi Nazrul Islam, the foundation of Bhim Kara has been shaken, all the chains are ringing together. The electrons are coming out of the atom’s binding, entering the cell of another atom. After dancing there for a while, he is running again in search of another atom. This is the plasma form of matter. Electron-deprived atoms are positively charged nuclei, they repel each other. Yet these insanely fast-moving nuclei break through the walls of electrical repulsion and collide with each other at high speeds. In the midst of this tug-of-war, they fell into the clutches of a powerful nuclear ball against the will of an electric ball. There is no escape from a nuclear ball that is 136 times stronger than an electric ball. Under the intense pressure of this ball, the two nuclei merge to form a new nucleus. This is called nuclear fusion reaction. When two light atoms are joined together to form a heavy atom, some matter is converted into energy. This is how every star in the sky creates energy.
At normal temperatures four types of fundamental balls are found, gravity, weak nuclear, electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces. We always feel the pull of gravity and electric ball. I’m sitting in a chair. The gravity of the earth is pulling me towards that center, the chair is pushing me in the opposite direction, I can feel these balls. There is a parallel between these two conflicting balls, so I sit still. But how is the chair pushing me upwards? If you think a little, you will understand that the chair is a mirage. The chair is made up of billions of atoms, and the atoms are made up of electrons, protons and neutrons. The size of these particles is negligible compared to the size of the chair. The solid object that I am sitting in the chair thinking about is actually an empty space. The blade of a knife easily penetrates into the mango. How? As the blade of the knife enters, the atoms of the mango stand aside and make room. What I am thinking of as a mango is also an empty space, how many atoms are spinning at a tremendous speed in this empty space. Mango, chair, I’m all Maya. ‘Reality is an illusion, albeit, a persistent one.’ Einstein said.
Let us also listen to Rabindranath, ‘God is trembling, I see the light, the waves are rising in the air, I hear the sound; Gravity-repulsion is going on in the finest atom of dissection, I see a large, strong dissecting object. ‘What makes the chair push me up? In fact, the chair and I are not pushing, I am wrong to think that the electric repulsion of the electrons in my body and the electrons in the chair is pushing me and the chair. Strong nuclear balls are very strong, but their effects are limited inside the nucleus, weak nuclear balls have smaller spheres of influence, this ball only plays with the inner quarks of protons, neutrons, it has no curiosity about the outside world. In the plasma state of the object, these nuclear forces wake up with terrifying power. Strong nuclear forces hold the two nuclei together, weak nuclear forces make neutrons into protons, along with positrons, neutrinos, and abundant energy.
If plasma could be held inside a bottle, it would become a small star. Infinite energy would be gathered from these petting stars. Like the lamp of Alauddin, this bottle contained two mighty giants, two nuclear balls. Make a plasma inside a bottle, hold it for a while. In this study I have spent a lot of time in life, seeing the sudden happiness and pain of my colleagues. The fire that burns in the center of a star, its form will dance in front of my eyes for a moment, what a joy! Plasma, a tiny star inside a bottle, was created with great difficulty and effort. Some of my friends used to call this transient plasma star Eve. What else is their fault, the poet Nazrul sang, ‘Wake up woman, wake up to the flames.’ ‘Come to my house, stay a little longer, sit a little longer, let me see you with all my heart, But he can’t be held, he gets lost in a few seconds. I used to sing Rabindra Sangeet in my mind, “What did he say when he saw him and left?”
Author: Emeritus Professor, Department of Physics, Illinois State University, USA
* The article was published in the May 2017 issue of Science Thought